How Volcanoes Froze the Earth (Twice)

Over 600 million years ago, sheets of ice coated our planet on both land and sea. How did this happen? And most importantly for us, why did the planet eventually thaw again? The evidence for Snowball Earth is written on every continent today.
Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Franz Anthony from Studio 252mya for their wonderful illustrations. You can find more of their work here:
Special thanks to Judy Pu for answering our questions about Snowball Earth.
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  • Man, if only those sponges had banded together to stop climate change before the glaciers melted and flooded everything. How ever could life survive with temperatures over 40F?

    Adam BrownAdam Brown13 saatler önce
  • I love love love this channel! It reminds me of just how special, beautiful, and one-of-a-kind our planet is. Thank you PSB Eons

    Sophie ShenkalSophie ShenkalGün önce
  • C02 cools the earth .

    Wendell ClaytonWendell Clayton2 gün önce
  • Hmm so volcanoes are to blame for the ice age sequels. We must act on this to prevent more tragedies

    Pheunith: Psychic-Water TypePheunith: Psychic-Water Type3 gün önce
  • Your knees. . . .

    jediflipjediflip3 gün önce
  • magnetic reverals cauase ice ages

    Eric KortEric Kort4 gün önce
  • Let’s have a video on the sun! The suns influence on climate. How the sun has caused global catastrophe!!

    Franky dysonFranky dyson6 gün önce
  • What about the earth being (almost) entirely covered in ice 2 billion years ago? Recent astronomical studies indicate that there was dust descending to the surface during millions of years about 600 or less million years ago possibly being caused by two huge "asteroids" (perhaps a L-chondrite and a comet-like object) that must have collided "near earth". That could correlate with the volcano theory of yours. In earths atmosphere, ice particels calmen the temperature while dirty dust often slowens the dissapearing of sun energy, so the warmth lasts longer

    Simon JäkleSimon Jäkle7 gün önce
  • Never date a geologist. They take everything for granite.

    EBFilmsManEBFilmsMan7 gün önce
  • But now human activity is to blame for climate change? Why? Please tell me why if all of these natural forces did it before.

    Adam C.Adam C.9 gün önce
  • If the earth can be covered in solid water it can be covered in liquid water

    Jonathan WilliamsJonathan Williams9 gün önce
  • No mention of a huge climate affect is earths orbit and tilt!

    Kim MarieKim Marie9 gün önce
  • Lots of suggested events...

    Jamaar JonesJamaar Jones9 gün önce
  • If they say humans been here for millions of years like how they say the earth evolved over millions of years wouldn’t you think we would transition to living inside of the earth like agartha ?

  • I'm a sponge for snowball earth literature, your presentation was really amazing. thanks! kinda making me like PBS again?

    Andy CAndy C10 gün önce
  • What about the fact that the magnetic pole change its Direction one occasion? Could that affect the theory? And does this change the entire thesis

    Bill SmithBill Smith10 gün önce
    • Bill Smith Im glad someone has a intellectual thought process, I was starting to give up hope. Thanks for the wonderful words theory’ and thesis... not fact!

      Franky dysonFranky dyson6 gün önce
  • Volcanoes: Lets try something different........

    Linear WolfLinear Wolf11 gün önce
  • It's amazing we're here at all

    Silas AshSilas Ash12 gün önce
  • Anyone else get a headache from the high pitch voice?

    UKinQ8 GamingUKinQ8 Gaming12 gün önce
  • Selling merchandise so that people can advertize them. They then run their consumers are killing the earth, UN climate change agenda.

    MeekseekMeekseek13 gün önce
  • My town is covered with ice heads

    Neal PalmerNeal Palmer13 gün önce
  • Your voice makes me sleepy 😴

    KingJes broKingJes bro20 gün önce
  • Amazing. And some people these days think that we're the ones causing trouble for the Earth ? I think if Earth can get through being a snowball for millionsof years she can weather everything we throw at her with little effort.

    Commander DanteCommander Dante21 gün önce
  • Back when global warming was cool...

    SnackHouse Chickens and GamingSnackHouse Chickens and Gaming23 gün önce
  • Earths emo faze

    Toaster BoyToaster Boy27 gün önce
  • "we have some now" 🤣😭🤣😭

    NicolasNicolas27 gün önce
  • Underground cities

    Paul vigilPaul vigilAylar önce
  • "Breaking up is hard to do" .... tell me about it.

    Ali ShaikhAli ShaikhAylar önce
  • Snowball is the real ice age

    Trey SpivaTrey SpivaAylar önce
  • CO2 isn’t strong enough to cause that big a shift. Maybe a couple of degrees, but the shifts involved are way to powerful to be driven by a minor shift like that.

    P CochranP CochranAylar önce
  • i would like to state that while some rocks can and do absorb CO2, most of the CO2 in the atmosphere is cleaned out by rain, and with 99% of all water on earth locked up in or below the ice, there was very little rain to clean the gases out of the atmosphere.

    Chaos StalkerChaos StalkerAylar önce
  • Okay I don't believe in snow earth. Yes all continents was cover in snow but not all earth. The continentals that time were all together so its possible all of them were covered in snow but not all earth first because once its covered all in snow it's really hard to unfreeze because the reflecting of the snow and even with volcanoes you need thousands of them to melt the ice or to warn the earth than you came to the problem of global warming like venus if there to much co2 or methane in the air so that's why I don't believe in snow earth

    Helder De AlmeidaHelder De AlmeidaAylar önce
  • Is it possible that icy worlds such as the moons of some planets like Titan and Europa for example, are currently in their own Ice Age(s) and will eventually get to the point Earth is now?

    greg the groove :: drum coversgreg the groove :: drum coversAylar önce
  • Wow, if I had a nickel for every time the Earth completely froze over, I'd have two nickels - which isn't a lot, but it's weird that it happened twice.

    shrimpisdeliciousshrimpisdeliciousAylar önce
  • Winter is coming

    William NolanWilliam NolanAylar önce
  • I love the guessing game scientists do to explain something, but based on 0 facts. You know they are wrong, when they say use words such as, Hypothesis, Guess, we think, Not sure but. you get the Idea.

    JohnJohnAylar önce
  • I can't stop watching these glad I found these!

    JadedJassy21JadedJassy21Aylar önce
  • I blame Canada for this event (and I live in it)

    TheTop HatNerdTheTop HatNerdAylar önce
  • "Sponges grow in the ocean. That just kills me. I wonder how much deeper the ocean would be if that didn't happen" - Steven Wright.

    ComaDaveComaDaveAylar önce
  • You forgot to mention when did the sun returned from the 7% cooler output to warmer output.

    Ric ConnollyRic ConnollyAylar önce
  • The answer does not reside in Volcanoes. The answer is found in Plate Tectonics of which Volcanoes are a symptom. Continental drift along with orbital mechanics coupled with precession of the axis and solar output combined in a way to cool the planet. Carbon is not the regulator unto it’s self. The cryogenian period was ended when the continents formed.

    Phantom PhlierPhantom PhlierAylar önce
  • Maybe life flourished under the thick ice by getting energy from underwater volcanoes (which some aquatic species still do on Earth, and that theory also supports that there might be life under the ice on Jupiter's moon, Europa.

    Ali KashwaniAli KashwaniAylar önce
  • Scientists claim that air pollution dropped from the sky at the end of the inter-glacial period for some unknown reason, and at the other end, some scientists claim that mammoths froze as if they were falling into a cryogenic bath. so should it be possible that at the end of the inter-glacial period, for a temperature drop reason, the air liquefies until the space touches the earth for a certain time ???

    Jocelyn BriseboisJocelyn BriseboisAylar önce

    CabalCabalAylar önce
  • im so glad i found this channel

    MG KMG KAylar önce
  • New generation human will make earth a nice heatball earth with all this global warming things..

    MeowMiau343MeowMiau343Aylar önce
  • I watched this because I wanted to know if we can use some of this science to reverse the global heating effect we are experiencing. Its interesting that the runaway cooling feedback loop is the same (but the opposite) as the runaway heating loop we seem to have kicked off now.

    Karunajala YoungsKarunajala YoungsAylar önce
  • Ahhh...but you never mentioned that the sun went micro nova and this along with the Earth's magnetic polar shift caused all the planet Earth's changes...even DNA!

    Front RunnerFront RunnerAylar önce
  • >burning sulfur cools planet FERB, I KNOW WHAT WE'RE GONNA DO TODAY >sulfur turns into acid rain and doesn't last for very long anyway FERB, I KNOW WhAT WE'RE NOT GONNA DO TODAY

    HungerGamesFan88HungerGamesFan88Aylar önce
  • That’s something i’ve never heard of.. wow

    Giovanni ThieneGiovanni ThieneAylar önce
  • If birds are dinosaurs, and penguins are birds which live in the bitter cold, then why don't they display dinosaurs covered like penguins?

    Billy G DiazBilly G DiazAylar önce
  • How does sulfur dioxide freeze the 18 million years later???? I understand it took a long time to rain out, but 18 million years?????? Isn't it more likely the shape of Rodinia blocking ocean currents was involved also?

    wcdeich4wcdeich4Aylar önce
  • If you didn't read that. I am impressed. If you did I'm still impresssed

    Aron SperlingAron SperlingAylar önce
  • 3:45 - look at the image, in the bottom left hand corner. Anyone else see the doggo?

    Carl FergusonCarl FergusonAylar önce
  • This is the answer to global warming, we just need a calculated ice age. A lot of people will die which helps solve the overpopulation problem while simultaneously helping with the overall amount of human pollution.

    villenvillenAylar önce
  • The Earth froze over due to the time it took to exchange orbit with other stars. The Earth did not always orbit the Sun. Here is a video that explains how planets evolve:

    Jeffrey wolynskiJeffrey wolynskiAylar önce
  • global warming trigger: "Now, there have been glaciers on our planet before - in fact, we have some now"

    Patrick MoorePatrick MooreAylar önce
  • How does weathering store c02?

    somethin somethinsomethin somethinAylar önce
    • well the co2 bounds with the rainwater over time and so turns it into a weak carbonic acid.....that carbonic acid rains down and instead of just disolving and releasing the Co2 again it it reacts with for example limestone,(what is basicly just calcium carbonate ) and so bounds the co2 in form of calcium bicarbonate. This process is called Chemical Weathering. But its a very slow process...

      Richard TrischkaRichard TrischkaAylar önce
  • The longest snow day ever! Yay!

    Jess O.Jess O.2 aylar önce
  • I honestly learn better Stuff then I ever did in school watching these videos!!! Thank you PBS Eons & the ppl the ppl who work hard on these vids to give us this info!!!! 👏

    Shanine JackmanShanine Jackman2 aylar önce
  • This is how the end of Game of Thrones should have been.

    roninronin2 aylar önce
  • Next video: how the humans scorched the earth ( first and last time).

    The Hiking gamerThe Hiking gamer2 aylar önce
  • Another video to remind me how tough it will be to find life on other planets, since we have to find it at the right time.

    Scott JonesScott Jones2 aylar önce
  • I dunno I’d like to see more evidence then presented 🤷‍♂️

    KHDZ GamingKHDZ Gaming2 aylar önce
    • I wish they would just put the articles in the description but it's pretty easy to google stuff we see. Tons of scientific articles in these subjects.

      Eduardo FreitasEduardo Freitas2 aylar önce
  • Hoth phase.

    Zane BlissZane Bliss2 aylar önce
  • Could the channel do a video about the evolution of the first true flowers?

    weibie Katzweibie Katz2 aylar önce
  • Fantastic documentary! one question - Is it possible that another ice ball earth to happen in future? Or, the earth is going to get so warm in future that an ice ball earth or even an ice age can never occur?

    Dipak SinghDipak Singh2 aylar önce

      Galacta NullifierGalacta Nullifier9 gün önce
    • @John DC how?

      Galacta NullifierGalacta Nullifier9 gün önce
    • Probably not, since the formation of a supercontinent and the increase of the sun's luminosity in the future will just raise global temperatures gradually.

      John DCJohn DCAylar önce
  • Why is all I can think of during this video is "Super-heated rocks from the Earth's core is surging to the crust, melting ice built up over thousands of years." 🙃🙃🙃 Also Evidence: the equator froze Scientists: no no no can't be... the Earth must've freaking flipped completely on its side

    Candy SouvannarangsyCandy Souvannarangsy2 aylar önce
  • I would like to point out here that liquid water at earth's pressure levels can't really get much below 0C regardless,. So for sea life at least, conditions wouldn't have changed too much temperature wise. Arctic waters now were at basically the same temperature as sea water would have been then. And the ice that forms on the surface insulates the water below, which helps it stay liquid. Dark and low on oxygen, yes. Also slightly less water to live in, since a lot of it is ice. But other than that, not so different.

    Fishslap 33Fishslap 332 aylar önce
  • pbs for the win (ftw)

    Sheepboy25262Sheepboy252622 aylar önce
How Volcanoes Froze the Earth (Twice)